Substance Abuse in Adolescents and Young Adults : A Manual for Pediatric and Primary Care Clinicians.

Health is a key component of human development, growth and quality of life. The Health, Medicine and Human Development book series aim to provide a public forum for book publications from a multidisciplinary group of researchers, practitioners and clinicians for an international professional forum i...

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Bibliographic Details
Main Author: Greydanus, Donald E.
Other Authors: Kaplan, Gabriel., Patel, Dilip R., Merrick, Joav.
Format: eBook
Language:English
Published: Berlin/Boston : De Gruyter, Inc., 2013.
Series:Health, Medicine and Human Development Ser.
Subjects:
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Table of Contents:
  • Intro
  • Author Index
  • Foreword
  • Abbreviations
  • 1 Introduction: Substance abuse in adolescents and young adults
  • Section I: Etiology and diagnosis
  • 2 Neurobiology of substance use disorders
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 General concepts
  • 2.2.1 Dopamine
  • 2.2.2 Serotonin and norepinephrine
  • 2.2.3 GABA
  • 2.3 Neuropharmacology of specific drugs
  • 2.3.1 Stimulants
  • 2.3.2 Alcohol
  • 2.3.3 Opioids
  • 2.3.4 Nicotine/tobacco
  • 2.3.5 Cannabinoids
  • 2.4 Summary
  • 3 Genetic influences on substance abuse disorders
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Limitations
  • 3.3 Gene classes
  • 3.4 Specific addictions
  • 3.4.1 Alcohol
  • 3.4.2 Cannabis
  • 3.4.3 Tobacco
  • 3.4.4 Others
  • 3.5 Epigenetic effects
  • 3.6 Complex diseases
  • 3.7 Conclusion
  • 4 Essential diagnostic considerations
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Review of the literature
  • 4.3 Epidemiology
  • 4.4 Empirical studies of assessment instruments
  • 4.5 Comorbidity
  • 4.6 Assessment
  • 4.7 Screening
  • 4.8 Diagnosis
  • 4.9 Biochemical testing
  • 4.10 Discussion
  • Section II: Treatment
  • 5 Psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Motivational treatments
  • 5.2.1 Precontemplation stage
  • 5.2.2 Contemplation stage
  • 5.2.3 Preparation stage
  • 5.2.4 Action stage
  • 5.2.5 Maintenance stage
  • 5.2.6 Contemplation of relapse
  • 5.3 CM and community reinforcement approaches (CRAs)
  • 5.3.1 CM
  • 5.3.2 CRA
  • 5.4 Cognitive behavioral approaches
  • 5.4.1 Functional analysis
  • 5.4.2 Drug refusal skills
  • 5.4.3 RP
  • 5.5 Family interventions
  • 5.5.1 Multidimensional family therapy (MDFT)
  • 5.6 Conclusion
  • 6 General pharmacotherapy principles
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Evaluation for pharmacotherapy
  • 6.3 When is pharmacotherapy appropriate?
  • 6.4 Conclusion
  • 7 Use of pharmacological agents for smoking cessation
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Epidemiology.
  • 7.3 Chemistry and pharmacology
  • 7.4 Effects on health
  • 7.5 Behavioral approaches to smoking cessation
  • 7.6 Pharmacological agents
  • 7.6.1 Varenicline
  • 7.6.2 Bupropion SR
  • 7.6.3 Nicotine replacement therapies
  • 7.6.4 Second-line medications
  • 7.6.5 Vaccine
  • 7.6.6 E-cigarettes
  • 7.7 Conclusion
  • 8 Marijuana: Current concepts and conundrums
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.1.1 Cannabis sativa plant
  • 8.1.2 Prevalence
  • 8.1.3 Cannabis lab testing
  • 8.2 Medical adverse effects
  • 8.2.1 Cannabis hyperemesis
  • 8.2.2 Dental effects of cannabis
  • 8.2.3 Pulmonary effects
  • 8.2.4 Cannabis and cancer
  • 8.2.5 Cardiovascular effects
  • 8.2.6 Motor vehicle accidents
  • 8.2.7 Sports doping
  • 8.2.8 Adverse effects: Psychiatric
  • 8.2.9 Management
  • 8.2.10 Pharmacological therapies
  • 8.2.11 Cannabis intoxication
  • 8.2.12 Cannabis withdrawal
  • 8.3 Cannabis-associated psychosis
  • 8.3.1 Cannabis dependence
  • 8.4 Summary
  • 9 Primary care management of alcohol use disorders of adolescents and young adults
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Epidemiology: Drinking patterns and beverage preferences
  • 9.2.1 Drinking patterns
  • 9.2.2 Drinking preferences
  • 9.3 Confidentiality in primary care
  • 9.4 Screening in primary care
  • 9.4.1 Screening
  • 9.4.2 Screening tools
  • 9.5 Assessment of risk
  • 9.5.1 Screening the college student
  • 9.6 BIs for the primary care office
  • 9.7 MI
  • 9.8 A clinical vignette
  • 9.9 Specific BIs for college students
  • 9.10 Sedative/hypnotics
  • 9.10.1 Epidemiology
  • 9.10.2 Associated problems
  • 9.11 Conclusions
  • 10 Opioids and prescription drugs
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Prescription drugs
  • 10.3 Analgesics
  • 10.4 Tranquilizers
  • 10.5 Stimulants
  • 10.6 Others
  • 10.7 OTC drugs
  • 10.8 DXM
  • 10.9 Antihistamines
  • 10.10 Illicit opioids
  • 10.11 Conclusion
  • 11 Illicit stimulant abuse in adolescents and young adults.
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 History of cocaine and methamphetamine
  • 11.3 Epidemiology
  • 11.4 Risk factors and comorbidity
  • 11.5 Pharmacology and pathophysiology
  • 11.6 Clinical manifestations of intoxication, overdose, and withdrawal
  • 11.7 Identification of warning signs
  • 11.8 Problem use (abuse and dependence)
  • 11.9 Treatment of illicit stimulant abuse and dependence
  • 11.10 Biological treatments
  • 11.11 Behavioral treatments
  • 11.12 Clinical management of co-occurring ADHD and stimulant use disorders
  • 11.13 Summary
  • 12 Date rape drugs and hallucinogens
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Hallucinogens
  • 12.2.1 LSD
  • 12.2.2 Mescaline (2,3,4-trimethoxy-phenethylamine)
  • 12.2.3 Psilocybin (and closely related psilocyn)
  • 12.2.4 Salvia divinorum
  • 12.2.5 PCP
  • 12.2.6 Ketamine
  • 12.2.7 MDMA
  • 12.2.8 Methamphetamine
  • 12.3 Date rape drugs
  • 12.3.1 GHB
  • 12.3.2 Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol)
  • 12.4 Epidemiology
  • 12.5 Diagnosis
  • 12.6 Management principles
  • 12.7 Conclusions
  • 13 The role of the pediatrician and primary care clinician
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Screening and assessment
  • 13.3 Confidentiality and consent
  • 13.4 Safety
  • 13.5 Screening tools and algorithm in adolescents
  • 13.6 Screening tools in young adults
  • 13.7 Summary
  • 13.8 Brief intervention
  • 13.9 Referral to treatment and the primary care clinician's role intreatment
  • 13.10 Conclusions
  • Section III: Special populations
  • 14 Substance use disorders in adolescents and young adults: Comorbidity and treatment
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Common comorbid psychiatric conditions
  • 14.2.1 Clinical samples
  • 14.3 General principles of assessment and diagnosis
  • 14.4 General principles of treatment
  • 14.4.1 ADHD
  • 14.4.2 Depressive disorders
  • 14.4.3 BPD
  • 14.4.4 Psychotic disorders
  • 14.4.5 Anxiety disorders.
  • 14.4.6 Treatment recommendations and prognosis
  • 15 Adolescent girls and substance abuse: Recent trends, risk factors, and consequences
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Gender differences in substance abuse
  • 15.3 Risk factors for substance abuse in female adolescents
  • 15.3.1 Puberty status and timing
  • 15.4 Hormonal changes and emotional reactivity
  • 15.5 Childhood sexual abuse
  • 15.6 Consequences of substance abuse in female adolescents
  • 15.7 Substance abuse and sexual activity
  • 15.8 Substance abuse and unwanted pregnancy
  • 15.9 Substance abuse and psychiatric disorders
  • 15.10 Perinatal mood disorders
  • 15.11 Spectrum of perinatal mood disorders
  • 15.11.1 Postpartum blues
  • 15.11.2 Postpartum psychosis
  • 15.11.3 Postpartum depression (PPD)
  • 15.12 Substance abuse and suicide risk in young girls
  • 15.13 Impact of substance abuse on adolescent mother and offspring
  • 15.14 Substance abuse and unintentional injuries
  • 15.15 Prevention and treatment strategies specific for adolescent girls
  • 15.15.1 Self-in-relation theory of women development
  • 15.15.2 Social-structural model
  • 15.15.3 Theory of gender and power
  • 15.16 Treatment of comorbid psychiatric illness
  • 15.17 Treatment of substance abuse in pregnant adolescents
  • 15.18 Future of substance abuse treatment
  • 15.19 Conclusions
  • 16 Prescription stimulant and other substance abuse in college students
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Alcohol
  • 16.2.1 Prevalence and demographic features
  • 16.2.2 Consequences
  • 16.2.3 New methods of ingestion
  • 16.2.4 Prevention and treatment
  • 16.3 Nicotine
  • 16.3.1 Treatment
  • 16.4 Marijuana
  • 16.4.1 Consequences
  • 16.4.2 Association with other conditions and implications for prevention and treatment
  • 16.5 Cocaine
  • 16.6 Prescribed stimulants
  • 16.6.1 Associations/risk factors for misuse and diversion.
  • 16.6.2 Prevention and treatment
  • 16.7 Conclusions
  • 17 Sports doping by adolescent athletes
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Protection for consumers
  • 17.3 Definitions
  • 17.4 Anabolic agents
  • 17.4.1 Epidemiology
  • 17.4.2 Effects
  • 17.4.3 Adverse effects
  • 17.4.4 Use of additional or concomitant doping agents with AAS
  • 17.4.5 Prevention
  • 17.5 Dihydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA)
  • 17.6 Androstenedione
  • 17.7 hGH
  • 17.8 Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB)
  • 17.9 Clenbuterol
  • 17.10 Creatine
  • 17.11 Stimulants
  • 17.11.1 Ephedrine
  • 17.11.2 Caffeine
  • 17.12 Blood doping and erythropoietin (EPO)
  • 17.13 Miscellaneous sports-doping agents
  • 17.14 Conclusions
  • 18 Prenatal drug exposure: Maternal and fetal issues
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 Screening and diagnosis
  • 18.3 Alcohol
  • 18.4 Tobacco
  • 18.5 Marijuana
  • 18.6 Opioids
  • 18.7 Cocaine
  • 18.8 Methamphetamine/amphetamines
  • 18.9 Benzodiazepines
  • 18.10 Inhalants
  • 18.11 Conclusions
  • Section IV: New challenges and policy
  • 19 New drugs of abuse in the 21st century
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Cannabinoids
  • 19.3 Stimulants
  • 19.4 Dissociative anesthetics
  • 19.5 Hallucinogens
  • 19.6 Conclusions
  • 20 Estimating the societal burden of substance abuse: Advantages and limitations of current methodologies
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 The cost-of-illness (COI) approach
  • 20.3 What components drive the costs of abuse for each substance?
  • 20.3.1 Cigarette smoking
  • 20.3.2 Alcohol
  • 20.3.3 Illegal drugs
  • 20.4 Variations and controversies
  • 20.4.1 Revisiting costs of crime
  • 20.4.2 Including domestic violence, child abuse, and neglect
  • 20.4.3 Including intangible costs of dependence and death
  • 20.4.4 Cost offsets
  • 20.4.5 Imperfect rationality
  • 20.5 Conclusions
  • 21 The pros and cons of legalization
  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.1.1 Difficult policy choices.
  • 21.2 Current policy: Prohibition.